Types of arthrosis: symptoms and methods of treatment

Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease of the joints, accompanied by pathological changes in hyaline cartilage, and subsequently in adjacent tissues, joint capsules and synovium.

Lesions are dystrophic and degenerative, causing changes in the structure of articular tissue, losing their function. According to the same statistics, 12% of the total population of the planet is prone to arthrosis. From 62% to 65% of all episodes of the disease occur in people aged 60 and over.

Another 30-35% of cases of joint damage with this pathology occur in patients aged 40-60 years. And about 3% are young people aged 20-40 years.

What is this?

In simple terms, arthrosis is a chronic disease in which progressive degenerative-dystrophic changes develop in the joints due to metabolic disorders. This is the most common joint pathology, diagnosed in 6-7% of the population. With increasing age, the incidence increases dramatically.

Often, in arthrosis, the pathological process involves small arm joints (in women 10 times more often than in men), toes, intervertebral joints of the thoracic and cervical spine, as well as knee and hip joints. Arthrosis of the knee and hip joints leads in terms of the severity of clinical manifestations and negative effects on quality of life.

Arthrosis is characterized by complex lesions of the articular and auxiliary apparatus:

  • chondritis - inflammatory changes in joint cartilage;
  • osteitis - the involvement of the underlying bone structure in the pathological process;
  • synovitis - inflammation of the inner membrane of the joint capsule;
  • bursitis - damage to the periarticular bag;
  • Reactive inflammation of soft tissues (muscles, subcutaneous tissue, ligaments) located at the projection of the joint involved (periarticular inflammation).

The disease is diagnosed in 2% of people under the age of 45, in 30% - from 45 to 64 years and in 65-85% - in the age of 65 years and older. Arthrosis of the large and medium joints in the toes has the greatest clinical significance due to its negative impact on the patient's standard of living and working ability.

Type of arthrosis

Depending on the cause of the pathological process in the joint, primary arthrosis is differentiated, secondary and idiopathic.

Primary develops as an independent, secondary disease, as a result of injury or infection, and the cause of the idiopathic form is unknown. In addition to the classification of diseases, depending on the cause of the pathological process, arthrosis is differentiated according to the location of the destructive changes:

  1. Gonarthrosis is the most common type of pathology characterized by damage to the knee joint. Often, gonarthrosis is detected in overweight people, with chronic metabolic diseases in the body, and weakened immunity. Knee arthrosis develops over a long period of time and gradually causes complete loss of motor function.
  2. Arthrosis of the shoulder joint - the leading cause of degenerative processes in this area is a congenital anomaly in the development of the shoulder joint or excessive pressure in this area, for example, when wearing heavy items on the shoulder.
  3. Arthrosis of the ankle - the main causes of the development of degenerative processes in the ankle joint are trauma, sprains, sprains, and fractures. In some cases, the development of pathological processes can provoke an autoimmune disease - rheumatoid arthritis. Arthrosis of the ankle affects dancers, women wearing high heels, athletes.
  4. Arthrosis
  5. Uncoarthrosis or arthrosis of the cervical spine - the causes are neck injuries, progressive osteochondrosis, obesity, inactive lifestyle. At risk are people who work on computers in the office. In addition to severe pain in the neck, patients experience dizziness, depression, memory impairment and fatigue. These symptoms are caused by compression of the vertebral arteries, through which nutrients and oxygen enter the brain.
  6. Coxarthrosis or arthrosis of the hip joint - the leading cause of its occurrence is age-related changes in joint tissue. People over the age of 45 are at risk.
  7. Osteoarthritis of the fingers - develops for the same cause as spondyloarthrosis.
  8. Polyarthrosis is characterized by damage to many joints with progressive degenerative processes within it, while pathological processes involve the ligaments, muscles and tissues around the joints.
  9. Spondyloarthrosis - the tissue of the spinal canal, which is the lumbar region, can cause destructive damage. Women are at risk during the onset of menopause, as spondyloarthrosis develops against the background of female sex hormone deficiency.

Causes of arthrosis

Two factors contribute to the formation of arthrosis - stress and lack of adequate nutrients, which supply vitamins and minerals for tissue repair. Everyone's joints carry a load. For athletes and dancers, while doing physical work, the load on the legs is greater, which means that the bone joints quickly deteriorate and require high quality nutrition. With a quiet lifestyle, the support device runs out more slowly, but also requires periodic tissue renewal.

Thus, the main conditions of joint damage and deformation are malnutrition, digestive disorders of useful components, which often occur with metabolic disorders.

Let's list the factors that contribute to the use of articular joints and metabolic disorders:

  • Muscle weakness and abnormal joint swelling. Weakening one or more muscles increases the load on the joint and distributes it unevenly at the junction of the bones. Also, improper muscle loading is formed with flat feet, scoliosis, therefore, with this "harmless" disease with age, cartilage tissue is depleted, arthrosis appears.

    The likelihood of arthrosis increases with vigorous physical exercise.

    If the daily load exceeds the capacity of bone tissue, microtrauma forms within it. At the site of injury, thickening appears, which grows over time and joint deformity;

  • Metabolic disorders (gastrointestinal diseases - bile stagnation, dysbiosis, gastritis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, metabolic diseases - diabetes);
  • Psychosomatic causes - psychosomatic arthrosis confirms that negative emotional states are also the cause of illness. Stress forms muscle spasms, constant stress interferes with the nutrition of all tissues (internal organs, bones, joints);
  • Heredity (type of metabolism and possible inherited disorders, tendency to muscle weakness or incorrect bone formation, poor digestion - which are the basis for the development of arthrosis in old age).
Osteoarthritis is a torn joint disease that loses a large supply of minerals and the ability to withstand stress and destruction. Therefore, as we age, the incidence of the disease increases. After 70 years, arthrosis is diagnosed at every second retiree. Since the maximum load falls on the foot (a person moves - walking, standing, running, jumping), this is where the first signs of arthrosis form.

Mechanisms of disease development

When there is a cause that causes joint disease with arthrosis to appear, pathological processes begin to develop within it. The mechanism of their development is not fully understood, but the main stages of formal medicine are known.

In the early stages, there is a thinning of the structure of cartilage tissue and abnormal changes in synovial fluid. All of this is due to metabolic disorders, in which joint tissues do not receive the required components in sufficient amounts, or lose some of them. Further, the elasticity of collagen fibers and the flexibility of cartilage are lost, due to the fact that in the body with nutrient deficiencies, hyaluronic acid does not have time to be produced, which gives softness and flexibility of the structural composition of collagen fibers. The cartilage gradually dries, becoming brittle and cracked. The fluid in the synovial capsule is gradually depleted and then completely disappears.

Rigidity and growth of dense bones form in cartilage tissue. At the same time, other joint tissue deformities develop, pathological degeneration, dystrophy and loss of physiological activity. For patients, this change means the appearance of pain, lameness, joint stiffness.

Symptoms of arthrosis

Acute clinical picture is not typical for arthrosis, progressive joint changes, slowly increasing, indicated by gradual increase in symptoms:

  • sick;
  • affected joint disorders;
  • joint defects that appear and worsen as the disease progresses;
  • stiffness;
  • limit of movement (decrease in the number of active and passive movements in the affected joint)

The pain in arthrosis is dull in nature, appearing on the move, with a strong pressure background, at the end of the day (it can be so intense that it does not let the patient fall asleep). The persistent and non-mechanical nature of pain for arthrosis is not typical and indicates the presence of active inflammation (subchondral bone, synovium, ligament or periarticular muscle).

A large number of patients record the presence of so-called pain that occurs in the morning after waking up or after a long period of inactivity and passing during physical activity. Many patients define this condition as the need to "expand the joint" or "escape. "

Arthrosis is characterized by morning stiffness, which has a clear localization and is short-lived (no more than 30 minutes), sometimes it is felt by the patient as a "jelly feeling" in the joints. Discomfort, stiffness is possible.

Joint pain with arthrosis

With the development of reactive synovitis, the main symptoms of arthrosis are accompanied by:

  • pain and local temperature increase, determined by palpation of the affected joint;
  • persistent pain;
  • joint enlargement, swelling of soft tissue;
  • progressive decrease in range of motion.

Levels and degrees of arthrosis

In the course of the disease, the drug distinguishes between three stages, which differ in the symptoms of the disease, the intensity of the lesion and the localization. At the same time, the differences in the three levels are related to the type of tissue undergoing pathological changes.

  1. The first stage of the development of joint arthrosis is the initial phase of the disease. It is characterized by mild damage to cartilage tissue and loss of physiological function of collagen fibers. At the same time, in the first stage, minor morphological disorders of bone tissue and structural changes in synovial fluid are observed. The cartilage of the joint is covered with cracks, the patient experiences some pain at the pathological site.
  2. The second stage - the development of arthrosis with increasing dynamics. This stage is characterized by the appearance of stable pain, lameness. There are morphological changes and dystrophy in the cartilage; during diagnosis, bone tissue growth is revealed. Osteophytes form - bone growth that can be seen during visual examination at the site of the lesion. At the same time, the process of degenerative changes in the synovial capsule goes on, resulting in the thinning of its structure. Diseases in this phase can often worsen and frequent. The pain gradually becomes persistent.
  3. Stage three - active development. At this stage, synovial fluid is almost non-existent due to its degeneration, and bone tissue is rubbed against each other. Joint mobility is almost non-existent, the pain becomes more pronounced. Cartilage is also absent due to degenerative and atrophic changes. Treatment of third-degree joint arthrosis is considered inappropriate.

In addition to these three stages of pathological development, there is a final stage - the destruction of all irreversible joint tissue. At this phase, it is impossible not only to perform effective therapy, but also to relieve pain.

The inflammatory process usually begins in the second stage of the lesion, in rare cases, in the absence of medical intervention - in the first stage. After that, it becomes increasingly difficult to stop it, and this can lead to secondary pathology, the development of pathogenic microflora at the site of localization of the disease.

To exclude severe consequences, treatment should be started from the first stage, and at the same time, intensive therapy methods should be applied. In the latter stage, associated with complete destruction of cartilage tissue, only one technique is allowed to relieve the patient and pain from the joint - arthroplasty with complete or partial replacement of joint components.


Consequences of timely treatment and advanced joint arthrosis have complications such as:

  • defect;
  • irreversible deformation;
  • occurrence of vertebral hernia;
  • joint cramps or stiffness;
  • declining quality and standard of living.

Chronic course, in addition to these complications, is accompanied by frequent and frequent pain, complete destruction of the structural components of the joints, discomfort, inability to perform physical work and play sports.


Diagnosis of arthrosis is based on the evaluation of anamnestic data, manifestations of disease characteristics, results of instrumental research methods. Indicative changes in general and biochemical blood tests are not uncommon for arthrosis, they only appear with the development of an active inflammatory process.

The main instrumental method for diagnosing arthrosis is radiography; in cases that are not diagnostically clear, computed or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended.

Arthrosis of the knee and hip joints takes the lead in terms of the severity of clinical manifestations and the negative impact on quality of life.

Additional diagnostic methods:

  • atraumatic arthroscopy;
  • ultrasonography (assessment of articular cartilage thickness, synovium, joint capsule condition, presence of fluid);
  • scintigraphy (assessment of the condition of the bone tissue of the skull that forms the joint).

How to treat arthrosis?

It is better to treat joint arthrosis at an early stage, the treatment itself must be pathogenetic and complex. The point lies in eliminating the causes that contribute to the development of the disease, it is also necessary to eliminate inflammatory changes and restore previously lost function.

Treatment of arthrosis based on some basic principles:

  1. Oxygenation of the joints, or so-called intra-articular oxygen therapy.
  2. Drug therapy.
  3. Intraosseous blockage, as well as metaepiphysis decompression.
  4. Sustainable Diet.
  5. Damaged joints must relieve excessive stress. If possible, it must be kept to a minimum during treatment.
  6. Follow a prescribed orthopedic regimen.
  7. Physiotherapy training.
  8. Takes a course of physiotherapy, which includes magnets and electrotherapy, shock waves, and laser therapy.
  9. Sanatorium treatment. To do this, it is necessary once a year, on the recommendation of a doctor, to undergo treatment at a specialized resort.

Preparations for the treatment of arthrosis

Drug treatment is carried out in the swelling phase of arthrosis, selected by the specialist. Self-medication is unacceptable due to possible side effects (for example, negative effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastric mucosa).

Therapy includes the following medications:

  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Starting therapy for arthrosis as a whole, you can slow down the course of the disease and improve your quality of life significantly. It should be noted in more detail about some points of treatment. In particular, drug therapy includes at an early stage - this is the elimination of pain syndrome, as well as the elimination of inflammatory processes that occur in the joints. For this, all doctors use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Experienced doctors do not recommend their oral administration, as this drug irritates the abdominal wall to a large extent. Therefore, depending on the drug chosen, intravenous or intramuscular use is used. Sometimes, as an auxiliary agent, NSAIDs are used in the form of ointments, but their absorption is very low, so significant effects cannot be achieved.
  2. Corticosteroid hormones. When arthrosis is at the level of exacerbation, it is recommended to take the hormone corticosteroids. They are injected into the joints. Externally, you can use a special plaster, ointment or tincture, made based on hot peppers.
  3. Chondroprotectors aimed at restoring cartilage and improving the qualitative composition of synovial fluid will not be superfluous. This course lasts for quite some time, until there is an improvement. However, if the expected effects do not appear within six months after administration, the drugs should be discontinued. Also intra-articular, along with chondroprotectors, it is recommended to use drugs made on the basis of hyaluronic acid. They contribute to the formation of cell membranes responsible for the formation of joint cartilage.


To relieve pain, reduce inflammation, improve microcirculation and relieve muscle spasms, patients with arthrosis are referred for physiotherapy:

  • In the aggravating phase. Determine laser therapy, magnetotherapy and ultraviolet radiation,
  • In forgiveness. Electrophoresis and phonophoresis shown.

In addition, thermal, sulfide, radon and marine bath procedures are used. To strengthen the muscles, electrical stimulation is performed. Gentle massage can also be used during remission.


If the listed methods of exposure are ineffective, if there are complications, they use arthrosis surgical treatment:

  1. Decreased metaepiphysis and intraosseous blockade (decrease in intraosseous pressure in the affected area);
  2. Corrective osteotomy;
  3. Endoprosthetics joints.

In the early stages of the disease, mechanical, laser or cold plasma debridement is used (smoothes out damaged cartilage surfaces, removes inappropriate areas). This method is effective in relieving pain, but has a temporary effect - 2-3 years.

Folk medicine

Most people today do not want to take pills or injections. So they raise the question - how to cure arthrosis with the help of folk remedies? For the most part, the funds aim to improve body tone, improve blood circulation, relieve pain and increase endurance.

Traditional medicine recipes used to treat this disease:

  1. The egg solution is made from fresh egg yolk, mixed with turpentine vinegar and apple cider vinegar in a ratio of 1: 1: 1. The liquid must be thoroughly mixed and applied to the affected joints overnight. Then you have to wrap it all up with a fur scarf. It is recommended to rub for 1 month 2-3 times a week.
  2. Buy elecampane root from a pharmacy. As a rule, it is packaged in a package of 50 grams. To prepare the color, you need half a pack of plant roots and 150 ml of high quality vodka. The ingredients are mixed, put in a dark bottle and put in for 12 days. Rubbing is done before bed, and if possible in the morning.
  3. Arthrosis of the knee
  4. The use of boiled oatmeal also gives good results. Take three to four tablespoons of oatmeal, pour boiling water and cook over low heat for five to seven minutes. The amount of water used should provide a thick porridge, which should be cooled and used as an overnight compress. Use freshly boiled debris. Overnight porridge is not good for compresses.
  5. Birch leaves, nettle leaves and calendula inflorescences are taken in equal parts. As a result, you need to get two tablespoons. We put the crushed collection into a thermos, fill it with a liter of boiling water and leave it overnight. Starting the next day, you need to drink half a glass of broth four to five times a day. Taking this prescription is two to three months.

The color of bay leaf, carrot, garlic and rye grains is also considered effective. Treatment of arthrosis with folk remedies will be most effective if combined with medication.

Nutrition for arthrosis

The basic principles of nutrition for arthrosis are reduced to the following:

  1. Avoid heavy meals at night to prevent arthrosis attacks.
  2. Eat in fractions.
  3. Control weight continuously, to prevent weight gain,Vitamins for arthrosisand, therefore, additional pressure on joint pain.
  4. When there is no worsening disease, take a walk after eating.
  5. The menu should be balanced, arranged with the attending physician.

There are absolutely no complaints about fish dishes - you can eat a lot of them, naturally, in reasonable amounts.

  1. Do not forget to take vitamins from food regularly. For patients with arthrosis, vitamin B group is very relevant
  2. Jelly meat plays an important role in the treatment of arthrosis. Such food will be a real storehouse of trace elements for joint pain. The most important component in aspic is naturally occurring collagen
  3. Vitamin B helps in the production of hemoglobin. It can be "obtained" by eating bananas, beans, cabbage and potatoes. Should be purchased with herbs and legumes. They will be a source of folic acid. Liver, mushrooms, dairy products, and even eggs will be useful. They are rich in riboflavin.

Following a treatment regimen prescribed by a doctor, it is possible to achieve this disease and the damaged tissue disease begins to grow again.


Prevention of arthrosis begins with proper nutrition. Need to reduce salt intake, as well as foods that can interfere with metabolism. These include beans, fatty meats, and alcohol. The diet includes cabbage, vegetables and fish.

For the prevention of arthrosis, it is necessary to attend physical education classes, do warm-ups. If possible, it is better to walk a few kilometers. It is also important to monitor your weight and prevent weight gain, as this will put extra pressure on joint pain. It is not recommended to take pills to lose weight, as it can interfere with the metabolism in the body.


Life is good. Eligibility of social and labor prognosis depends on the timeliness of diagnosis and onset of treatment; it decreases when the decision on the issue of surgical treatment of the disease is delayed, if necessary.